SECONDARY/ LEARNT/ PSYCHOLOGICAL MOTIVES ·Besides the basic biological needs, the expression of psychological needs is also of great significance:through society and culture in which one lives. · Non-satisfaction of these motives may lead to mental illness. Main psychological needs are: i. Achievement ii. Curiosity iii. Need for appraisaliv iv. Need for affiliationv v. Need for powervi vi. Work as motive 1. Achievement · Self- actualization or attaining excellence in relevant domain is the characteristic feature ofthis motive. The need to achieve something, some object of desire, a goal, or position/status. · The source of satisfaction is not just the achievement of the goal, but the very act of strivingfor it too. · The level of the need for achievement varies from person to person. · Some are high and some low achievers. · Competition is an important element of this need. · Achievement motivation is a significant variable in a competitive society. · People with high motivation: Take and overcome challenges in order to succeed rather thanfinding an easy ways of achieving success.
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People with low motivation: Tends to avoid failure, finding easy way outs, not desire to takedifficult tasks. · Methods of measuring achievement motivation:· Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is used; series of ambiguous pictures are presented tothe person and ask him to write a story on it. · Instructions are given as that the story must have a beginning, middle and an end along withthe title; who are the people, what they are thinking, feeling, wanting etc; what is going onand what will happen____ all depicts the needs, desires and motivation to succeed/ achieve. In short the subject describes the past, present and future along with the description ofcharacters and their thinking and motivation. · Factors Contributing to the Need for Achievemento Parents who are warm for their child as well as make high standards for theirchild; encouragement is given on becoming independent. o Siblings who are high achievers in their own domain. 2. Curiosity · Think why a little child always wanting to break toys and things? Why children always asks questions of things they saw on TV, read it or listen from any one· It is all their curiosity and need to explore in order to find answers of these puzzles. · It is a significantly inborn but learned also: found in both humans and animals. · Parents encourage their children’s curiosity by satisfying their inquisitiveness. · School also plays an important role; the teaching methodology adopted may encourage or discouragecuriosity. 3. Symbolic Reward/ Appraisal Appraisal is a powerful motive for everyone; especially for children and animals·Praising words, petting after doing well etc all serve as symbolic reward for the learner. ·The presence and the attitude of the more liked serves as a social reward for thelearner e. g. child with his mother, dog with its caretaker etc. Parent’s approval and disapproval, liking and disliking towards the child all areincluded in symbolic rewards. 4. Need for affiliation ·Urge/ desire to main a relationship with other people; making friends, social contact with otherpeople. Less desire to be isolated or alone. ·Studies showed that females spend a larger p of time among friends and peers as compared tomales. ·Although the need for affiliation is a universal phenomenon, cultural differences do exist in itsexpression; some cultures have more group cohesiveness than others. 5. Need for Power · Desire to influence, hold or ruling over others in order to be recognized as powerful individual. · These types of people prefer to work in big organizations, businesses and other influentialprofessions. There also exists gender differences among males and females; men are more apt to take challengesand respond quite aggressively irrespective of women who are socially restrained and traditional inher behavior. 6. Work · Most of the people spent large p of time in their life at work; for this reason, psychologists take itas another powerful motive · Work serves as a powerful motive because it satisfies other motives also such as biological motives ofhunger, shelter etc, sense of achievement, affiliation and decision-making.

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